Friday, 27 December 2019


 Chandrayaan 1
Chandrayaan 1 was India's first spacecraft to travel to the moon under the lunar exploration program of the Indian Space Research Organization. Although the name of this vehicle was only Chandrayaan, but the name of the next vehicle in this series was Chandrayaan-2, this campaign started to be called Chandrayaan-1. Chandrayaan 1 was launched on 22 October 2008 from the Satish Dhawan Space Center, Sriharikota and remained active till 30 October 2009. It used an indigenously developed Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-XL) rocket. Chandrayaan 1 was based on an Indian meteorological satellite called Kalpasat. It took 5 days to reach the moon but it took 15 days to set up in the moon's orbit.
The spacecraft successfully entered lunar orbit on 8 November 2008 and released its lunar impact test six days later. The purpose of the Chandrayaan was to find detailed maps of the lunar surface and traces of water and helium. Its tenure was to be around 2 years old, but it was closed earlier due to loss of contact with the control room. With Chandrayaan, India became the sixth country to send the moon. This venture opened the way for sending aircraft including humans to the moon and Mars.
Cruising just 100 kilometers above the lunar surface, Chandrayaan 1 took several high-resolution images of the moon's topography. It also performed mineralogical mapping and scoured the surface for any radioactive elements.
One of the major achievements of the mission was the discovery of large numbers of water molecules present in the soil of the moon. The mission cost only $ 56 million and gave us important information about the lunar surface.

 Specific Areas of Study by Chandrayaan 1
i) Mineral and chemical imaging of the north-polar and south-polar regions permanently under shadow.
ii) Look for surface or subsurface lunar water-ice, especially at lunar poles.
iii) Identification of chemicals in rocks.
iv) Chemical taxonomy of the layer, imaging of internal material from the remote and through the South Pole Aitken Region (SPAR).
v) Mapping the variation of elevation of the lunar surface.
vi) Observation of most stereographic coverage of the lunar surface with an X-ray spectrum greater than 10 kV and 5 m (16 ft) resolution.
vii) To provide new insights into understanding the origin and evolution of the Moon.

The Greatest Achievement of the Century by Chandrayaan 1
The Indian Space Research Organization [ISRO] claimed that water on the moon is an exploration of India. The presence of water on the moon was detected by India's own Moon Impact Probe [MIP] on Chandrayaan-1. US Space Agency NASA equipment has also confirmed water on the moon. Chandrayaan-1 has made an important discovery of this century by finding the presence of water on the moon. According to ISRO, the water on the moon is not in the form of seas, waterfalls, ponds or droplets but on the surface of minerals and rocks. The presence of water on the Moon is much higher than earlier estimates.

 Chandrayaan 2

Chandrayaan-2 or II Chandrayaan is India's second lunar exploration mission after Chandrayaan-1, developed by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). The expedition includes a lunar orbiter, a rover and a lander built in India. These have all been developed by ISRO. Chandrayaan 2 was launched on July 22 from the same launch pad from where Chandrayaan 1 took off. Instead of using the previously used older PSLV rocket, the spacecraft used the upgraded Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III (GSLV Mk III).
Unlike last time, ISRO refused to carry any foreign payload due to weight restrictions. But in June 2019, it agreed to carry a small laser retroflector from NASA.
However, the orbiter will hover over the moon at a distance of 100 km and perform passive experiments as it did on Chandrayaan 1. The entire Chandrayaan 2 mission costs approximately $ 141 million. This is less than every installment of the Marvel Avenger series. Unlike Chandrayaan 1, the stakes are much higher this time as the spacecraft is also carrying a lunar rover, orbiter, and lander. Besides, Chandrayaan 2 is the country's first opportunity to use self-built components and design vehicles.
However, at about 1:52 am IST, the lander deviated from its intended path about 2.1 km from the landing and ground control lost communication with the spacecraft. On 8 September 2019, it was reported by ISRO that Vikram Lander has been detected from the heat painting taken by the orbiter. But Vikram Lander has not been contacted yet.

 Main information of orbiter, lander, and rover


The orbiter will orbit the moon at an altitude of 100 kilometers. In this campaign, it has been decided to send the orbiter with five payloads. Three payloads are new, while two others are improved versions of the payload being sent to the Chandrayaan-1 orbiter. Its weight at the time of flight was about 1400 kg. The Orbiter High-Resolution Camera will give high-resolution pictures of the landing site before the lander separates from the orbiter. The mission life of the orbiter is one year and is placed in a 100 X 100 km long lunar polar orbit.


Chandrayaan 2 lander named father of Indian space program

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